This Paragraph is all about the Types of Vultures in India Read Carefully in given Below

The vulture is a carnivorous carnivore there are 23 species of vultures (including Condors) the vultures of the Old World include 16 species that are native to Europe, Africa, and Asia; the new world vultures are banned in North and South America and include seven identified species, all belonging to the Cathartidae family] One characteristic of many vultures is the bald, featherless head. This hollow skin is thought to keep the scalp clean during lactation and plays an important role in regulating temperature. 

Vultures have been observed to bend their bodies and stick their heads in the cold and to spread their wings and stretch their necks in the heat they also urinate as a means of cooling their bodies. 

A group of vultures flying is called a ‘kettle’, and the word ‘committee’ refers to a group of vultures resting on the ground or in trees a group of vultures is called ‘wake’ although the vultures of the New World and the vultures of the old world are very similar, they are not closely related. Rather, they are similar to evolution early ecologists placed all the vultures under one biological group Carl Linnaeus had donated both the Old World vultures and the new world vultures to the Vultur species, including the Harpy eagle. Anatomists soon distinguished the Old and New World vultures, and the New World vultures were introduced to a new place, Cathartae, later renamed Cathartidae according to the Law of Nomenclature (from the Greek: cathartic, meaning “purifier”)  by French orthopedic surgeon Frédéric de Lafresnaye the suborder was later recognized as a family, not a suborder.

In the latter part of the 20th century, some ornithologists argued that new world vultures are closely related to the stork based on karyotype, morphological, and behavioral data so some officials put them in the Ciconiiformes family with storks and herons; Sibley and Monroe (1990) even regarded them as a stork family this criticism and preliminary DNA sequencing studies were based on erroneous data and were later retracted then there was the attempt to elevate the vultures of the New World to the level of an independent order, the Cathartiformes not closely related to carnivorous birds or storks and herons.

Vultures are dogs, which means they eat dead animals outside of the oceans, vultures are the only ones notorious for looting they do not usually attack healthy animals, but they can kill injured or sick ones when a carcass has skin too thick for its beak to open, it waits for the large participant to eat first large numbers have been seen on the battlefields they puff themselves up when the deer are in small groups until their plants explode, and they sit, sleep, or torpid, to digest their food these birds do not feed their young with their fingernails but remove them from their plants the bearded mountain fox is the only vertebrate that specializes in bone meal and carries the bones to the nest to transport them to the nest, and it hunts for some living prey.

Vultures are as valuable as invaders, especially in the tropics Vulture stomach acid is extremely corrosive (pH = 1.0 [22]), allowing them to safely digest rotten carcasses infested with botulinum toxin, swine cholera virus, and anthrax viruses that can be harmful to some fishermen and remove these bacteria from the environment the vultures of the New World often vomit up when threatened or threatened. Unlike other accounts, they “pour” on their attacker in self-defense, but to reduce their abdominal load to make it easier to move the digested food residue may disturb the invader, allowing the bird to escape. 

The vultures of the New World also urinate straight into their legs; uric acid kills accumulated bacteria in the carcass and acts as a decomposition.

Read Also:  Indian vulture problem

Types of Vultures in India

The vultures of southern Asia, particularly India and Nepal, have declined sharply since the early 1990s. this decrease was found to be due to the remnants of the animal drug Diclofenac in the carcasses of animals the Indian government has realized this fact too late and has banned veterinary medicine however, it may take decades for vultures to return to their original human condition, in case they return: without vultures picking up corpses clean, rabies-carrying dogs have proliferated, eating dead meat, and ancient practices such as burying in the sky. Parsees’ extinction, permanently reducing the discovery of bodies a similar problem exists in Nepal when the government took the latest steps to save the remaining vultures similarly, in Central Africa, there have been efforts to save the remaining vultures and to repatriate their population this is mainly due to the trade-in wild meat, “an estimated 1.2 billion wild game [2.2 lb]” and vultures take up most of this forest meat due to its demand in the animal market a significant decline in the number of vultures on the African continent is said to be the result of intentional or unintentional poisoning, with some studies finding that it causes 61% of vulture deaths. 

The number of vultures is threatened throughout Africa and Eurasia many anthropogenic activities threaten vultures such as poisoning and death from air force collisions. a recent study in 2016, reported that “of the 22 vultures, nine are endangered, three are endangered, four are endangered, and six are relatively undiagnosed” the conservation status of the vultures is a major concern for the people, for example, a decrease in the number of vultures could lead to an increase in disease transmission and damage to resources, as well as an increase in the number of people living with disease and pests that kill carcasses by chance.

 

Vultures of the Old World 

Types of Vultures in India

vultureblack and white photograph: Bird

 

Some of the members of both vultures of the Old World have a neck and a featherless head, which is shown as the radiant heat in this thermographic image.

  • Griffon vultures extracting the carcass of a red deer in Spain
  • The Griffon vulture is flying
  • Culture prepares to settle in Kenya
  • African hat-trick in the Kruger National Park
  • The awakening of a white-backed vulture eating the carcass of a deer in the Maasai Mara
  • Nekhbet staffed with shen ring
  • A herd of white vultures in India
  • The head of a vulture in Melat Park, Tehran City, Iran the Old World vultures found in Africa, Asia, and Europe are members of the family Accipitridae, which includes eagles, cats, deer, and hawks. The vultures of the Old World find corpses only by sight.

The 16 genera of 9 generations are:

  • Cinereous eagle, Aegypius monachus
  • Griffon vulture, Gyps fulvus
  • White eagle, Gyps bengalensis
  • Rüppell’s eagle, Gyps rueppelli
  • Indian eagle, Gyps indicus
  • A vulture with a small building, Gyps tenuirostris
  • Himalayan eagle, Gyps himalayensis
  • White Eagle in the background, Gyps Africanus
  • Cape Eagle, Gyps coprotheres
  • Horned eagle, Necrosyrtes monachus
  • Red-headed eagle, Sarcogyps calvus
  • Lappet-faced eagle, Torgos tracheliotos
  • White-headed hip, Trigonoceps occipitalis
  • Bearded beetle (Lammergeier), Gypaetus barbatus
  • Egyptian vulture, Neofron percnopterus
  • Palm eagle, Gypohierax angolensis

 

 The World Eagle

(Coragyps atratus) The black American vulture wakes up in a road rage American Black Vulture gathered in the roadkill area

The vultures and condors found in tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas are not closely related to the same Accipitridae but are members of the Cathartidae family, once considered to be related to the stork. However, recent DNA evidence suggests that they should be included among Accipitriformes, as well as other carnivorous birds however, they are not even closely related to other vultures several species have a good sense of smell, which is unusual for raptors, and they can smell dead animals from high places, up to a mile.

The seven types are:

  • Black vulture Coragyps atratus in South America and north to the US
  • Turkey vulture Cathartes aura throughout the Americas to southern Canada
  • The small yellow-headed vulture Cathartes burrovianus in South America and north to Mexico
  • The large yellow-headed eagle Cathartes melambrotus in the tropical Amazon Basin of South America.
  • California condor Gymnogyps californianus in California, once abundant in the mountains of western North America.
  • Andean condor Vultur gryphus in the Andes
  • King vulture Sarcoramphus pope from southern Mexico to northern Argentina

Vulture habitat in India

The Indian gypsy indicator (Gyps indicus) is an Old World hermit from India, Pakistan, and Nepal. Listed As a Vulnerable IUCN Red List Risk since 2002, as the population declines sharply. Indian vultures are killed by kidney failure caused by diclofenac poisoning. It breeds mainly on rocky cliffs in central and central India.

The thin gypsy Gyps tenuirostris in the northern part of its range is considered a different species.

 

  • Definition
  •  Ethics and nature
  •  Condition and conservation
  •  Population is declining
  •  Breeding programs for captives

 

The closure of the Indian eagle in Mangaon

The Indian vulture is of medium size and large. Its body and hidden feathers are pale, the flight feathers are black. Its wings are broad and its tail is short Its head and neck are almost bald, and its tail is very long. It is 81–103 cm (32–41 in) long and has a wingspan of 1.96–2.38 m (6.4–7.8 ft). Women are younger than men. 

It weighs 5.5–6.3 kg (12–14 lb). It is smaller and much smaller than the Eurasian griffon It is distinguished by its type with its small body with buffs and wing holes. It also does not have a white middle screen bar displayed by griffons. 

Behavior and nature

Indian eagle in Madhav National Park this category does not cite any sources please help improve this section by adding quotes from trusted sources unavailable items can be challenged and removed. The Indian vulture breeds mainly on the cliffs of South and Central India, but it is known for using trees to breed in Rajasthan It may also breed in tall man-made structures, such as the Chaturbhuj Temple Like other vultures, it is edible food, mainly for corpses, which it finds by flying over the savannah and around the human habitat they often gather like flocks.

  • Status and conservation
  • The population is declining
  • The Indian eagle flies
 Why Vultures are Endangered in India?

Indian vulture and white vulture, type G. bengalensis decreased by 99% -97% of the population in Bangladesh, Pakistan, and India between 2000-2007 the annual decline rates of this species and the slender wolf make an average of more than 16% the cause of this has been identified as the toxicity of the animal drug diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and when given to active animals can reduce joint pain and keep it active for longer the drug is believed to have been swallowed by vultures of dead cattle given diclofenac in the last days of life.

Diclofenac causes kidney failure in several species of vultures In March 2006 the government of India announced its support for the ban on the use of diclofenac another NSAID, meloxicam, is harmless to vultures and should appear to be a substitute for diclofenac when meloxicam production is increased it is hoped that it will cost as much as diclofenac since August 2011 a one-year ban on the use of animals has not stopped the use of diclofenac throughout India.  Few birds breed in the Indian Peninsula, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu, especially in the rural areas of Bangalore the decline of the Indian eagle has had a profound effect on conservation by removing all carcasses, vultures helped reduce pollution, spread disease, and suppress unwanted cleaners without them, the number of dogs and mice, as well as their zoonotic diseases, has increased dramatically. 

Vultures  Nest in Orchha

Types of Vultures in India

Captive breeding programs for several species of Indian vultures have been introduced Vultures are long-lived and slow to reproduce, so plans are expected to take decades Vultures reach the age of about five years  It is hoped that domesticated birds will be released into the wild when nature is no longer diclofenac. In early 2014 Saving Asia’s Vultures from Extinction (Save) program announced its intention to begin releasing wild birds in 2016. two captive Himalayan griffons were released in June 2016 at the Jatayu Conservation Breeding Center, Pinjore as part of the first program to reintroduce vultures in Asia.

Vulture Conservation Project in India
Types of Vultures in India

A group of black vultures fighting over a turtle hatchling to eat

To investigate the cause of vulture deaths in India, the Vulture Care Center (VCC) was established in Pinjore, Haryana in 2001. later in 2004, the VCC was upgraded to become the first Vulture and Breeding Centers (VCBC) in India. currently, there are nine Vulture and Breeding Centers (VCBC) in India, three of which are managed by the Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS).

The main purpose of the VCBCs was to care for the vultures and to breed them in captivity and release them to the wild. India’s conservation efforts are focused on the three most endangered species of vultures according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) namely,

  • White vulture in the background,
  • A Vulture With a Small Building, once
  • Vulture With a Long Builder.
Causes of Vulture Death

Types of Vultures in India

The main reason why the vultures were almost extinct was the drug Diclofenac It was found in the carcass of cattle where vultures ate it. the drug was usually given to cattle to treat inflammation Its use of animals was banned in 2008 by the Government of India Diclofenac (bioaccumulation (a gradual accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in living organisms), caused kidney failure in Vulture, leading to death.

Diclofenac dangerously kills Vultures. Even 1% of its carcass can kill Vulture shortly after it has eaten such a carcass poisonous bodies were dumped to kill some of the stray animals but when vultures ate them, it became one of the most important


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