Climate

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The variations of weather conditions during rainy seasons. These changes occur due to changes in elements of weather (temperature, pressure, wind direction and velocity, humidity and precipitation, etc. weather is the momentary state of the atmosphere while climate refers to average weather conditions over a longer period of time. Weather changes quickly may be within a day or week but climates change imperceptibly and are noticed after 50 years or even more the word monsoon connotes the climate associated with a seasonal reversal in the direction of winds. India has no monsoonal climate which is the prevalent climate in the south and southeast Asia.

 

   Unity And Diversity in The Monsoon Climate

The monsoon regime emphasizes the unity of India with the rest of the southeast Asian region. This view of broad unity of the monsoon type of climate, should not, however, lead one to ignore its regional variations which differentiate weather and climate of different regions of India. For example, the climate of Kerala and Tamil Nadu in the south is so different from that of Uttarpradesh and Bihar in the north, and yet monsoon type of climate. The climate of India has Many regional variations expressed in the pattern of winds. Temperature and rainfall, the rhythm of seasons, and the degree of wetness or dryness. These regional diversities may be described as sub-types of monsoon climate.

    While in summer the mercury occasionally touches 55°c in the western Rajasthan, it drops down to as low as minus 44°c in winter around Leh. Churu in Rajasthan may record 50°c or more on day of June while the mercury hardly touches 19°c in Tawang (Arunachal Pradesh ) on the same day on a December night, the temperature in dress (Jammu Kashmir) may drop down to minus 45°c while Thiruvananthapuram or Chennai on the same the night records 20°c or seasonal variations in temperatures from place to place and from region to region in India. Not in a single place the temperature for just one day in Kerala and the Andaman Islands, the difference between day and night temperature may hardly be seven or eight degrees celsius. In the Thar desert, If the day Temperature is around 50°c at night it may drop down considerably up to 15°-20° the regional variations. Precipitation. While snowfall occurs in the Himalayas. But the types of precipitation but also in amount. While Cherrapunji and Mawsynram in the Khasi Hills of Meghalaya receive more rainfall over 1,080cm in a year Jaisalmer in Rajasthan rarely more than 9cm during the same period.

Tura situated in the Garo Hills of Meghalaya may receive an amount of rainfall in a single day which is equal to 10 years of rainfall at Jaisalmer, the annual precipitation is less than 10cm in the north and exceeds 400cm in Meghalaya.

    The Ganga delta and the coastal plains Orissa are hit by strong rain-bearing storms almost on the fifth day in July and August on the Coromandel Coast, while a thousand km south. Generally rainfall during September but in the coastal areas Tamil Nadu. It rains at the beginning of the winter season.

The variations of weather conditions during rainy seasons. These changes occur due to changes in elements of weather (temperature, pressure, wind direction and velocity, humidity and precipitation, etc. weather is the momentary state of the atmosphere while climate refers to average weather conditions over a longer period of time. Weather changes quickly may be within a day or week but climates change imperceptibly and are noticed after 50 years or even more the word monsoon connotes the climate associated with a seasonal reversal in the direction of winds. India has no monsoonal climate which is the prevalent climate in the south and southeast Asia.

Factors related to location and relief.

Latitude: The latitudinal and longitudinal extent of India. The tropic of cancer passes through the central part of India’s east-west direction. Thus the northern part of India lies in the sub-tropical and Temperate zone and the part lying south of the Tropic of Cancer falls in the tropical zone. The tropical zone being nearer to the equator experiences high temperatures throughout the year with a small daily and annual range. The area north of the tropic of cancer being away from the equator experiences an extreme climate with a high daily and annual range of temperature.

The Himalayan Mountains

The lofty Himalayas in the north along with its extensions act as an effective climatic divide. The towering mountain of the chain provides an invincible shield to protect the subcontinent from the cold northern winds. These cold chilly northern Winds originate near the Arctic circle and blow across central and eastern Asia.

Distribution of Land and Water

India is flanked by the Indian Ocean on three sides in the south and grilled by a high and continuous Mountain wall in the north. As compared to the landmass, water heats up and cools down slowly. The differential heating of land and sea creates different air pressure zones in different seasons around the Indian subcontinent. The difference in air pressure causes a reversal in the direction of monsoon winds.

Distance from the sea

With a long coastline, large coastal areas have an equable climate, areas in the interior part of India are far away from the moderating influence of the sea. Such area has extreme of climate the people of Mumbai and the Konkan coast have hardly any idea of extreme temperature and the seasonal rhythm of weather on other hand, the seasonal contrast in weather at the place in the interior of the country such as Delhi, Kanpur, and Amritsar it affects the entire sphere of life.

Altitude 

With the decrease of temperature with height due to thin hair, the place of mountains is cooler than a place on the planes. For example, Agra and Darjeeling are located on the same latitude, but the temperature in Agra in the month of January is 16°c whereas it is only 4°c in Darjeeling.

 Relief

In India, the physiography or relief also affects the temperature, air pressure, direction and speed of wind the amount and distribution of rainfall the side of windward of western ghats and Assam receive high rainfall during June to September the southern plateau remains dry due to its leeward situation along the western ghats. 

 Factors Related to Air pressure and wind 

The differences in local climates to understand the mechanism of the following factors:

  1. Distribution of air pressure and winds on the surface of the earth
  2. Upper air circulation caused by the factors controlling global weather and the inflow of different air masses and jet streams.
  3. The inflow of western cyclones generally known as disturbances in the winter season and tropical depressions during India, creating weather conditions favorable to rainfall.

The direction of winds in India in winter at the height of 9-13km

Mechanism of weather in the winter season

 

 

Summer monsoon winds: Surface circulation

 

Surface pressure and winds: In the winter months, the weather conditions over India are generally by the distribution of pressure in central and western Asia. The high pressure in the region lying in the north of the Himalayas develops during winter. This center of high pressure gives the rising flow of air at the low level from the north towards the Indian mountain ranges. These continental winds come in contact with trade winds over northwestern India. The position of this contact wind occasionally it may shift position as far east at the middle Ganga valley with the result that the whole that the northwestern and northern India up the middle Ganga valley comes under the influence of dry northern winds.

 

Jet stream: The pattern of air circulation discussed above is witnessed only at a lower level of the atmosphere near the earth’s surface. Higher up in the lower troposphere about three km above the earth surface a different pattern of the air circulation is observed. In variations, the atmospheric pressure closer to the earth’s surface has no role to play in making upper air circulation. Western and Central Asia remains under the influences of westerly winds along with an altitude of 9-13km from west to east. These winds blow across the Asian continent at the latitude of northern Himalayas roughly parallel to the Tibetan highlands this is called a jet streams

Mechanism of weather in the summer in season

Surface pressure and winds: The summer sets in the sun shifts northwards, the wind circulation over the subcontinent a complete reversal at both the lower as well as the upper levels. In the middle of July, the low-pressure belt nearer the surface the termed as (ITCZ) Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone shifts northwards parallel to the Himalayas between 20°N to 25°N This time the westerly jetstream withdraws the Indian region. In fact, the meteorologists have found an interrelationship between the northward shift of the equilateral through (ITCZ) and we draw of the westerly jet stream from over the North Indian plain. The ITCZ is the zone of low pressure that attracts the inflow of winds from different directions.

 

The onset of monsoon

At the end of the nineteenth century, it was believed that the differential heating of land and sea during the summer months is the mechanism of monsoon winds draft towards the subcontinent. during April and May, the sun shines vertically The tropic of cancer large landmass in the north of the Indian ocean gets intensely heated. The formation of intense low pressure in the northwestern part of the subcontinent. The pressure in the Indian ocean in the south of the landmass is higher as the water gets heated slowly the low-pressure cell attracts the southeast trade across the equator the conditions of a northward shift in the position of ITCZ.

 

 

 

 

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