You have already seen the map of India in the previous notes. Now you closely examine the map of India mark the southernmost and northernmost  latitudes and the easternmost and westernmost longitudes the mainland of INDIA, extends from Kashmir in the north Kannyakumari in the south and Arunachal Pradesh east to Gujarat in the west, India’s territorial Limit further extends towards the sea upto-12 nautical miles (about2.19km) From coast.

         See in the box in below


Statute miles= 63,360 inches 

  Nautical miles = 72,960 inches

  1 statute mile= About 1,6km (1,58km)                                               

  1 Nautical mile = About 1.8km (1,852) 



Our southern boundary upto 6°45N Latitudes in Bay Of Bengal. Let us try to understand the implications of having such a vast longitudinal and latitudinal extent. if you work out of the latitudinal and longitudinal extend of India, They are roughly about 30 Degrees, whereas the actual distance measured from north to south extremity is 3214km, and that from east ton west is only 2933km. What is the reason for difference latitide , longitude and time. This difference is based on the fact that the Distance between two longitudes decreases towards the poles whereas the distance between latitudes remains the same. From the values of latitude. Its is understand that the southern part country lies within the tropics and the Northern part lies in Subtropical zone. On the warm temperature zone.  Now we observe that longitudinal extent and its implication on the Indian people. From the Values of longitude. Its Quite discernible that there is a variation of Nearly 30 degrees, which causes a time Difference of nearly two hours the Easternmost and the Westernmost parts of our country, you are the familiar with the concept of Indian standard Meridian (IST) which is use of standard Meridian while the sun rise in the North eastern states about two hours earlier has compared to Jaisalmer, the watches in Dibrugrah, Imphal in the east and Jaisalmer, Bhopal or Chennai in other part of India.



            India: Administrative Divisions




The size of India has endowed with great physical diversity thus you may appreciate the presence of lofty mountains in the north; large rivers such as Ganga, Brahmaputra, Mahananda, Krishna, Godaveri and Kaveri green forest in hills in north east and south India: and vast sandy expanse of marusthali. The himalaya in the north hindukush and sulaiman ranges in the north-west purvanchal hills in the north-east and by the large expanse of the Indian ocean in the south, it forms a great geography entity known as the Indian subcontinent. It includes Bangladesh and India. The himalayas, together loith other ranges. Have acted as formidable physical barriers in the past except for a few mountain passes such as khyber, the bolan, shipki la, the nathula, the bondila,etc. It was difficult to cross it. By referring to the physical map India you can now describe the physical variation which you would come across while travelling from kashmir to kanyakumari and from Jaisalmer in Rajasthan to Imphal in Manipur. The Peninsular part of India extends toward the Indian ocean. This has provided the country with the coastline of 6110KM in Mainland and 7515 km in entire geographicaal coast of the mainland plus the island groups Andamn and Nicobar located in the Bay of Bengal and the Lakshadweep in the Arabian Sea. thus India, as a country, is a Physically diverse land providing occurrence of varied resources.


                             INDIA AND ITS NEIGHBOURS 

Examine the locations map of India is located in the south-central part of the continent of Asia  Bordering the Indian Ocean and its to arms extending in the form of Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. This Maritime location of Penisular India has provided lines to its neighbouring regions through the sea and air routes. Prepare a list of India’s neighbouring countries by consulting the map. Srilanka and Maldives are the two Island countries located in the Indian Ocean. Which are neighbours. Srilanka is separated from India by the Gulf of Mannar and Palk Strait.



The physical barrier is a Hindrance interaction with our Neighbouring Countries in Modern Times.  



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