You have observed the water flowing through the rivers. Nalas  and even channel or during rainy season which drain the excess water. These channels not there, large scale flooding would have occurred. Wherever  channels are ill- defined or chocked, flooding is a common phenomena.

The flow of water through well- defined channels is known as drainage. And the Network of such channels is called a drainage system. Drainage pattern of an Area is the outcome of the Geological Time period, nature and the structure of Rocks, topography, Slope, amount of water flowing.

A river Drains the water collected from a specific area, which is called its catchment Area, an area drained by a river and its tributaries is called drainage basin. The catchments of large rivers are called river basins while those of small Rivulets. And rills are often referred to as water sheds. The boundary line separating one Drainage from the other is called watershed. However, a slight difference between a river basin and a watershed. Watershed are a small in area while the basins cover larger areas. Indian Drainage system may divided on Various bases. It may be grouped into:

  1. The Arabian Sea Drainage
  2. The Bay of Bengal Drainage

They are separated From each other through Delhi ridge. The Aravalis and the Sahyadris Nearly about 77 percent of the drainage area consisting of The Ganga, The Brahmaputra, The Brahmaputra, The Mahanadi, The Krishna, Etc.it is oriented towards the Bay of Bengal while 23 percent the Indus, The Narmada, The Tapi, Mahi and The Preiyar system discharge their water in the Arabian Sea. the Narmada and Tapi are two river they along with many small rivers discharge their water in Arabian Sea.


Drain system in India consists of a large number of small and big river. It is the outcome of the evolutionary process of three major Physiographic and Nature characteristics of Precipitation.


                             The Himalayan Drainage

The Himalayan Drainage system has evolved through a long geological history it mainly includes the Ganga. Indus and the Brahmaputra river basins,  they are fed both by meeting of snow and precipitation rivers of this system are perennial. These rivers pass through the giant gorges carved out by the erosional activity. With uplift  of the Himalayas besides the deep gorges, these rivers also from v-shaped valleys, rapids and waterfalls in their mountainous course, while enteng the plains, they from depositional features for example: flat valleys, ox bow lakes, floods plains, braided channels, and deltas. The river mouth- the Himalayan reches, the course of there rivers highly tortus, over the plains, they display a small meandering. And shifts their course. Frequently the river kosi is called a sorrow of Bihar: has been notorious for frequently changing its course. Kosi brings huge quantity of sediments of the upper reaches.




     River Systems of the Himalayan Drainage.



The Himalayan drainage consists of several river systems but the following parts of the major river system

                     The Indus System

It is the largest river basin of the Himalayas covering an area of 11,65000sq.km (in Indus) it is 321,289 sq km and the total length of 2,880km (in India 1,114km). The Indus is known as Sindhu. Is the Westernmostst of the Himalayan rivers of India. It originates from a glacier near Bokhar chu. (31°,15’N) latitude and 81°40’E longitude) in the Tibetan Region. At an altitude of 4,164m in the Kailash mountain range. In Tibet, it is known as Singi Khamban: or lion’s mouth. It flowing the northwest direction between the Ladakh range, form a spectacular gorge. near Gilgit in Jammu Kashmir. It enters Pakistan near in the Dardistan region.

The Indus receives a number of Himalayas tributaries such as the Shyok, The Gilgit Zaskar, the Hunza, the Nubra, the Shigar, Gasting, and the Dras. It finally emerges out of the hills. Near attock where it receives the Kabul river on its right bank of the Indus are the Khurram, the Tochi, the Gomal. Viboa and the Sangar. They all originate in Sulaiman Ranga.


The Jhelum, an important tributary of the Indus rivers, from spring at Verinag situated at foot of the Pir Panjal in the southeastern part of the valley of Kashmir. It flows through Srinagar and the Wular Lakes. Before entering Pakistan through a deep narrow gorge. It joins the Chenab near Jhang in Pakistan.


The Ravi is another important tributary of the Indus. It rises of the Rohtang pass in Kullu hills of Himachal Pradesh and flows through the Chamba Valley of the state. Before entering Pakistan and joining the Chenab near Sarai Sidhu. It drains the area lying between the southern part of the Pir- Panjal and the Dhauladhar Ranges.


The Satluj originates in the Rakas lake near Mansarovar at an altitude of 4,555m in Tibet where it is known as Langchen Khambab. It flows almost parallel to the Indus for about 400km before entering India. And comes out of a Gorge at Rupar. It passes through the Shipkla on the Himalayan Ranges. And enters the Punjab Plains. It is called an Antecedent river. It is a very important tributary as it feeds the Canal systems of the Bhakra Nangal Project.


The Beas in is another important tributary of the Indus, Originating from the Beas Kund near the Rohtang pass at an elevation of 4,000m above the mean sea level. The river flows through Kullu Valleys and forms Gorges at Kanti and Largi in the Dhauladhar Range. It enters the Punjab Plains where it meets Satluj near Harvie.

The Brahmaputra one of the largest rivers of the world has its origin in the Chemayungdung glacier of the Kailash range near the Mansarovar lake. It traverses eastward longitudinally for a distance of nearly about 1,200km in a dry and flat region of southern Tibet, where it is called Tsangpo which is mean the Purifier. The Rango Tsangpo is the major right-bank tributary of this river after carving of a deep gorge in the central Himalayas near Namcha Barwa (7,755m) The river emerges from the foothills under the name of Siag or Diag. It enters in Arunachal Pradesh flowing southwest, it receives its main left-bank tributaries, viz… Dibang or Sikang and Lohit therefore it is called the Brahmaputra.

The Brahmaputra has receives numerous tributaries in its 750km long journey through Assam valley. Its major left bank tributaries are the Burhi Dihing, Dhansari (South), and Kalang whereas the important right bank tributaries are the Subansiri, Kameng, Manas, and Sankosh. The Subansiri has an origin in Tibet and an antecedent river. The Brahmaputra flow enters Bangladesh near Dhubri and flows Southward. In Bangladesh, the river Tista joins on its right banks from where the river known as the Yamuna. It finally merges with the river Padma in falls in the Bay of Bengal The Brahmaputra is known as the floods channel shifting and bank erosion this is tributaries a large and bring quantity of sediments to heavy rainfall in its catchment area.



                          The Peninsular Drainage System

The peninsular Drainage system is older than the Himalayan This is evident from broad graded shallow valleys and maturity of rivers. The Western Ghats running close to the western coast as the water divide between the major peninsular rivers, discharging their water into the Bay of Bengal and some small rivulets joining the Arabian sea the major Penisular rivers except Narmada and Tapi flow west to east. The Chambal, Sind, Betwa, Ken, Son originating in the northern part of the Penisula belong to the Ganga river systems The other part of the Peninsular Drainage system For example- Krishna, Kaveri, Godavari, Mahanadi Peninsular rivers Characterised by absence of meanders and non-perennial flow of water. The Narmada and The Tapi which flow Through the Rift Valley

Comparison between the Himalayas and the Penisular river.       



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